王达军
    http://wangdajun.artron.net/
    王达军
    编辑出版摄影画册《西部奇路》;... 1988..
    参加北京今日美术馆“中日摄影名家... 1992..
    拍摄出版摄影画册《安岳石窟艺术》... 1997..
    拍摄出版摄影画册《丽江白沙壁画》... 1999..
    拍摄出版摄影画册《中国石窟雕塑全... 2000..
    拍摄出版摄影画册《收租院群雕》;... 2001..
    拍摄出版摄影画册《小平故里》;... 2004..
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    风景摄影作为理解文化的途径
     
    作者:顾铮  发布时间: 2018-12-27 16:42:03
     
     

    ​  一直以来,我对于中国风景摄影实践的关注显得不够。原因无它,只是因为个人对于自然景观较少能够产生共鸣。作为城市(也是文化)的对立项的自然,如何能够成为观看世界的一个透镜或视窗,成为思考现实的一个契机,有赖于摄影家个人的作为。而这也是我判断风景摄影的一个标准与立场。当然,是不是愿意将风景视为思考现实的契机,这也与摄影家们的文化立场(也是自然态度)与美学趣味有关。

      从观念上将自然与文化两分化的人类的特别之处在于,他们既认可文化,也肯定自然。通过具体、复杂而又丰富的文化实践,他们持续展示文化创造的能力。同时,人类也展示克服自然限制的努力。而通过与自然的复杂精致的各种形式的对话,他们又看到持续反思文化的可能性。而且,在所谓的文化越是被“发展”得精深博大的情况下,人们对于自然的怀恋与回归也变得越是强烈。从这个意义上说,作为文化的对立概念的自然的存在,似乎就是被用于对文化的反思,而文化的实践则在相当程度上是被用于提示关怀自然的重要性。而在人类广泛的文化实践当中,其实就包括了风景摄影。

      历史地看,风景摄影其实与人类的社会政治与日常生活实践无法分离。风景摄影往往会泄露人类对于根本上属于自然之一部分的自身境况的焦虑、恐惧与困惑。只不过这些心情与心态有时可能是以风景摄影这么一种大部分属于明快亮丽的形式表现出来。凡是意识到了人类自身处境甚至是困境的风景摄影,往往就会具有了一定的观念深度与表现语言上的丰富性。而简单地再现所谓的“自然美”的风景摄影,至少在我看来,应该不是真正意义上的风景摄影的终极目标与追求。

      所以说,如果说风景摄影是表达人类对于自然的尊重与认同,那么它同时也应该是表达了对于作为自然所产的人类自身的生命尊重与伦理反思。这种对于人与自然的双重的尊重,同时肯定又埋藏了摄影家从根本上说对于人本身的命运、处境与价值观的深切关怀与反思。这种意义上的风景摄影,从目前的中国来看,似乎仍然需要足够的优秀作品来刺激我们的思想、激活我们的自然观与生态观,来扩展对于风景摄影的定义,同时当然也仍然要求我们通过各自的实践来更严肃地对待之、丰富之。

      从王达军提供的材料看,他最早的风景摄影作品可以上溯到1981年。这也可见拍摄风景于他成为了一个持续的作业。早年军旅生活中的风景摄影作品,在我看来更见某种沉郁与压抑,而人与景的结合也给出了人与自然相处这个命题的沉重一面。在其创作的中期阶段,会有风景中的废墟形象的出现。这些作为风景之一部分的废墟,有的属于人类活动的遗迹、遗址、遗痕,因其被破坏与被摧毁的形象而令人产生凭吊、感伤、怀旧的感情。同时,它们也是寄予希望与期待新生的生机所在。从这样的风景看,我们发现摄影家王达军从来没有放弃对于人类与文化的信心。渐渐地,他的画面从相对的沉郁走向明快。尤其是他最近的风景摄影作品,在我看来,画面更显艳丽华贵。这些较为后期的作品少了当初的严酷,多了从容与开朗。这当然可以视为是一种摄影家对于自己过去的自我超越,但在中国的现实生态日趋恶劣的今天,这是不是也可以认为是王达军对于人与生态的关系恶化的失望所致的反话正说型的表现?在王达军最近的一些作品里,人的因素有时还是以宗教文化的形式出现在自然中,比如寺庙。而在他的早前照片里,卡车这样的作为现代性的人为因素则与大自然形成了某种对立与冲突。但在他现在的新作里,寺庙却是作为超越现代性的标志而出现、存在于自然中,可能也作为他的自然观与文化观的体现出现在他的照片里。这些宗教庙宇建筑与塑像进入到了自然风景当中的景象,也可以说是一种反映了文化景观与自然景观交融的现象。这种影像,反过来可以让我们发现,当文化以自然为依靠,以自然为吸引时,其实就是文化向自然的输诚。王达军的风景摄影,或许向我们提示的既有自然景观的摄影描述,也有人与自然关系的复杂变化,这在一定程度上也反映了他的关注点的转移与自然观的丰富复杂。从某种意义上说,对于某种事物越是肯定,反过来就越是透露对于这种事物的反面的一种否定。或许从这个意义上我们可能会获得对于他的风景摄影的新的认识。

      英国摄影评论家苏珊·布赖特说:“风景摄影的复杂性,从一开始被当作最直接的艺术类型时就不容低估。”(苏珊·布赖特,《摄影作为艺术》,世界图书出版公司,2013,P49)在生态遭受严峻挑战的当代,对于风景的视觉处理,既是一种对于自然的书写,也是一种生态观的表达。对于优美的自然的赞颂,并不是面对无论是壮观的还是清丽的景观的视觉上的逢场作戏,而是一种对于正在缺失、变得支离的自然的惋惜的赞叹。人类往往会通过赞颂的方式来表达愤怒,因为只有人类才具有如此操作自己的情感的能力。或许,他们把好的事物加以强调与突出,也是意味着对于坏的事物的鞭笞了。在王达军的风景摄影中,我们或许可以发现,理解文化也可以通过理解自然来实现。有时,并不只是直接地面对文化就表示有可能理解文化,通过文化的对立项的自然来理解文化、反思文化并且进而反思人类自身,或许也是一种有效的方式。从这个意义上说,风景摄影是一种值得我们严肃对待的理解文化的途径。这种从文化的角度来理解风景摄影,赋予风景摄影以文化的观点与立场,会给我们思考自身与世界的关系带来新的刺激。而把中国风景的变化与中国自然生态的变化(更准确地说是自然伦理观的恶化)联系起来看,我们可能会更清晰地发现一些被我们忽视、漠视的东西。

      以上所述也许是思考王达军的风景摄影给我自己带来的一些启发。

    Understanding Culture through Landscape Photography

    GuZheng

      I have never paid enough attentionto Chinese landscape photography, and the reason is simply that natural landscapes do not have much resonance for me, as nature is the opposite of the city (and culture).Nature can become a window or a lens through which to view the world and an opportunity to reflect on reality, but this depends entirely upon the photographer. I judge landscape photography by its ability to make me reconsider my worldview. Of course, whether or not I will see a landscape as an opportunity to reevaluate my reality is related to the photographer's cultural views, attitudes toward nature, and aesthetic tastes.

      Conceptually, the unique feature of humanity, which separates nature and culture, is that it both approves of culture and affirms nature. Through specific, complex, and rich cultural practices, humanity presents the ability to engage in cultural creation,working hard to overcome natural limitations. Through a dialogue with nature's complexity and exquisiteness, humans see the possibility of reconsidering culture. As culturehas "developed," the nostalgia for and desire to return to nature has become ever more intense. In this sense, nature, the opposite number of culture, is almost used to rethink culture, and cultural practice is used to remind people of the importance of nature. Thus, human culture also includes landscape photography.

      Historically speaking, landscape photography is inseparable from human society, politics, and daily life. Landscape photography often reveals our anxiety, fear, and bewilderment at humanity's place as a part of nature. However, these moods can sometimes be expressed in the form of landscape photography that is simply and straightforwardly beautiful, but landscape photography that reflects the human

      condition often has a certain conceptual depth and expressive richness. In my view,landscape photographers that simply representnatural beautyhave not understood the true purpose of landscape photography.

      If landscape photography expresses humanity's respect for nature, then it also should express a respect for life and a theoretical consideration for the humanity that nature produced. This dual respect for man and nature both affirms and disguises the photographer's deep concern for human life, circumstances, and values. Today's China needs outstanding works of landscape photography to provoke deeper thought about nature and the environment, expanding our definition of landscape photography and enriching our own lives.

      According to Wang Dajun, his earliest landscape photographs were taken in 1981. In my view, his early landscapes from his time in the army seem somehow sad and restrained. The combination of people and scenery gives the idea of the coexistence between man and nature a deeper meaning. Around the middle of his creative career, images of ruins appear in his landscapes. Some of the ruins are part of the landscape, but they are also traces, relics, and vestiges of human activity. At the sight of these images of deterioration, people become nostalgic, sentimental, or emotional, but they place their hopes on new life, represented by the surrounding nature. From these landscapes, we discover that Wang Dajun's confidence in humanity and culture never flagged. Gradually, his photographs have moved from the gloom into the light. In my view, his most recent landscape works are especially magnificent. These later works have lost that earlier harshness, and gained calm and clarity. Of course, we could view this as a photographer transcending his past, but as China's environmental situation continues to deteriorate,these pictures might also represent Wang's musings on the worsening relationship between man and nature.In some of Wang's most recent work, humanity appears within nature in the form of religious elements, such as temples. In his early pictures, modern, manmade items, such as trucks,antagonize and conflict with nature. But in his new work, temples are symbols that transcend modernity, existing in nature, and perhaps representing his views on nature and culture. When religious architecture and sculptures enter into the natural landscape, they reflect the blending of the cultural and natural worlds. These images also help us to discover that culture depends on and is incorporated into nature. Wang's landscape photographs show us a natural scene as well as the complex changes in the relationship between

      man and nature. To a certain extent, they also reflect a shift in his focus and the complexity of his feelings about nature. The more he affirms something, the more he denounces its opposite, thus giving us something new.

      British photography critic Susan Bright wrote, "The complexity of landscape photography has been difficult to underestimate ever since it was deemed the most direct art form." (Susan Bright, Art Photography Now, World Book Publishing Company, 2013, p. 49) At a time when the natural environment is facing some significant challenges, the visual treatment of the landscape is similar to writing about nature,in that it expresses a worldview. These pictures of natural beauty are not just the visual aggrandizement of magnificence or serenity; they are also eulogies for a natural world that is being lost and fragmented. Humanity often praises something to express its anger, because only humanity has the ability to manipulate emotions like this. The photographs both emphasize good things and deride bad things. Through Wang's landscape photographs, we learn that understanding culture can also be accomplished by understanding nature, but sometimesdirectly confronting culturedoes not hold out the possibility of understanding culture. Nature, the opposite of culture, allows us to understand culture, reconsider it, and even reflect on humanity itself. In this sense, landscape photography is a way for us to seriously engage with our understanding of culture. Understanding landscape photography from a cultural perspective gives landscape photography a cultural viewpoint and inspires us to consider our relationship to the world. Wang Dajun links changes in Chinese landscapes to changes in Chinese natural ecologies (or more accurately, the deterioration of those ecologies), allowing us to uncover things that we may have previously ignored.

     
    (新闻来源:艺术家提供)